Optimal Recharging Strategy for Battery-Switch Stations for Electric Vehicles in France

Most papers that study the recharging of electric vehicles focus on charging the batteries at home and at the work-place. The alternative is for owners to exchange the battery at a specially equipped battery switch station (BSS). This paper studies strategies for the BSS to buy and sell the electricity through the day-ahead market. We determine what theoptimal strategies would have been for a large fleet of EVs in 2010 and 2011, for the V2G and the G2V cases. These give the amount that the BSS should offer to buy or sell each hour of the day. Given the size of the fleet, the quantities of electricity bought and sold will displace the market equilibrium. Using the aggregate offers to buy and the bids to sell on theday-ahead market, we compute what the new prices and volumes transacted would be. While buying electricity for the G2V case incurs a cost, it is possible to generate revenue in the V2G case, if the arrivals of the EVsare evenly spaced during the day. We compare the total cost of implementing the strategies proposed with the cost of buying the same quantity of electricity from EDF.